DEVELOPING MATHEMATICS ABILITY OF CHILDREN
BY USING GAMES IN PAUD NURUL HIDAYAH ACEH BESAR
Yuhasriati *1 and Fakhriah2
1,2Universitas Syiah Kuala, Indonesia
Problem that is discovered in PAUD Nurul Hidayah Aceh Besar is that the learning process to develop children’s mathematics ability is yet to be delivered through games or playing activity. Also, introduction of mathematics is done limited on figures and number. As a result, children’s other creative abilities such as forming patterns, comparing and estimating. The ability of early childhood children on mathematics needs to be developed because it will be the fundamental of the next mathematic concepts masterization on the other educational levels. Object of mathematics is abstract. In order to develop early childhood children mathematics ability, proper and fun methods and stimulations is necessary. It can be accomplished using games. Solution of the problem mentioned before is done through classroom action research. The formulation of problem is how to develop early childhood children mathematics ability using games on children in PAUD Nurul Hidayah Aceh Besar. Data collected from the subjects by observations. The game is being played in three cycles consist of playing pattern, playing classification, and playing numbers. Data is analyzed descriptively and qualitatively. The result of this study is that developing children’s mathematics ability in PAUD Nurul Hidayah Aceh Besar can be done with methods of story-telling, task-giving, demonstrations, and contests.
Keywords: mathematics ability, games, early childhood.
Mathematics skill is part of the cognitive abilities that is needed to be obtained by early childhood children as a preparation for further education. The other reasons is as the conclusion of the research by Bloom (in Suyadi (2015, P. 33) that early childhood children’s intelligence development undergoes an escalation up to 80%. Furthermore, research by Hunt (in Suyadi (2015, P. 32) concludes that children getting education in early childhood will create a long-term learning effects that can be recalled for a long time to the adulthood. Because of that all the potential of early childhood children needs to be developed, and mathematics ability is one of them.
Early childhood children cognitive development is still on the level of pre-operational. Because of that, using media of playing activities is necessary on the mathematics learning process, by allowing children to work and learn individually, in a group, and classically. The mathematics learning process is done in an integrated manner through learning themes that is close to children’s contexts of life and their real experience. Mathematics learning for early childhood children does not prosecuted children to masterize counting and summation, but this is the step of introduction delivered by various games and playing activities.
Principle of learning while playing must be applied on the developing of early childhood children’s mathematics ability. As stated by Risaldy (2014, P. 7) that teacher have to provide playing activites while including educative elements so that children unknowingly study, and the learning activities themselves become fun.
Problem that is discovered in PAUD Nurul Hidayah Aceh Besar is that the learning process to develop children’s mathematics ability is yet to be delivered through games or playing activity. Also, introduction of mathematics is done limited on figures and number. As a result, children’s other creative abilities such as forming patterns, comparing and estimating.
Based on the problem mentioned above, the formulation of problems from this research is how to develop early childhood children’s mathematics ability through games activities in PAUD Nurul Hidayah Aceh Besar? Consistent with the formulation of problems, the purpose of this research is to obtained methods to develop early childhood children’s ability through games activities in PAUD Nurul Hidayah Aceh Besar.
This research is meant to improve learning process in class. This improvement effort is done by implementing actions to seek the answers of the problem proposed. Research design that is compatible with that goal is classroom action research. The main goal for classroom action research is to improve the quality of classroom practice, in this case is improving learning quality in order to develop children’s mathematics ability through games activities.
This study used a qualitative approach, according to the characteristics of qualitative research, as stated by Moleong (1996, P. 4), that the study is natural. Subjects of this research is 15 children of group B (5-6 years old) in PAUD Nurul Hidayah Aceh Besar, consisting 9 boys and 6 girls. Data collected from the performance of research subjects using observation techniques. Data is analyzed descriptively qualitative. According to Miles & Huberman (1994, P. 24) the steps to data analyzing is data reduction, data display, data verivication and conclusion. The research is done in three cycles, with each cycle consists of four stages. The stages is corresponding on Arikunto, 2010, P. 24, that is: planning, action, observation, and reflection.
On the planning stage of each cycles, researcher prepares research instruments of: 1) Weekly Lesson Plan (RPPM), 2) Daily Lesson Plan (RPPH), 3) Rating Instrument, 4) Equipment of Educational Games (APE), 5) observation sheet, and 6) playing activities. Playing activities in cycle I is playing pattern, in cycle II is playing classification, and in cycle III is playing numbers. The prepared APE is geometry builds, numeral cards, string up materials, animal miniature, and domino cards.
On the action stage of each cycles, there are some actions. Actions on cycle I, is the activity of playing patterns with the learning goal of children’s ability to find patterns on arranged objects, it can be the shapes, the colors, or the size. Action I using APE of geometry builds, and Action II using APE of string up materials. Cycle II is activities of playing classification. The learning goal is that children obtained the ability to classified objects on the shapes of it, colors, or size. Action I using APE of animal miniature, and Action II using APE of geometry builds. Cycle III is done in the activities of playing numbers. The learning goal is that children obtained the ability of concepts on numbers and figures. Action I using APE of number cards and Action II using domino cards.
The observations is done during the learning process takes place, by the member of research team and teachers of PAUD Nurul Hidayah Aceh Besar as the obsever. Observed object is the learning activities and children’s working performance, using observation sheets. The results of observation become the fundamental of reflection materials.
The reflection stage is done with the observer in order to analyze the learning process that has lasted. The reflection results become the input of improvement on learning process at the next cycles.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Data is obtained from the observation results on children’s performance during the learning activity in 3 cycles. Implementation of the actions is corresponding to the plan that each cycles consists of some activities. The implementation of each cycles needs 3-4 days.
Activities in Cycle I, that is the activity of playing patterns with the goal that children obtained the ability of finding patterns patterns on arranged objects; the shapes, the colors, or the size. Action I using APE of geometry builds, that is to complete the arrangement of geometry builds with pattern:
The learning process is done using demonstration method. Children is asked to continue it with the same pattern. Every children are given the chance to try arranging the objects in order to form a pattern. Action II using APE of string up materials. Teacher demonstrates how to make bracelet and necklace from beads, with the pattern of 4 reds, 2 yellows, 4 reds, 2 yellows, and so on into forming bracelet or necklace.
Students are also asked to string up based on the size.
and so on
Students are given the freedom to string up based on however patterns they like with beads as many as needed.
Based on the observation results of children’s performance, obtained data that is besides of the ability to arrange based on pattern, there is a development of creativity and estimation ability on children.
Cycle II is playing classification. The goal is that children obtained ability to arrange objects on the shapes, colors, or size. Action I using APE of animal miniature. Activity starts with the story of a cattleman who has some kind of farm animal. During the story, children are asked to put the animal miniature on their own cage to help the cattleman. Teacher also asks students to group the animals on their own way with reasons of grouping. Action II using APE geometry builds. Teacher asks the students to collect geometry builds that is akin on a container. Action III using string up material. The activity is making bracelet from beads of the same color, so there will be red bracelet, yellow bracelet, and so forth. Based on the observation results on the children’s performance, obtained data of children’s ability on classifying objects given.
Cycle III is the activity of playing numbers. The goal is that the children obtained the ability of the concepts on numbers and figures. Action I using APE of number cards that can be attached. The results on the research of Ahmad, et al. (2016, P. 498) is that, “Introducing numbers to early childhood children by using number cards can be done with stories, games, and contests”. Game is done by contests, that is to ask children to mention some numbers and pair them on a group of objects, or vice versa. Ordering numbers 1-10 or 10-1, and complete the known order of numbers. The contest on Action II using APE of domino cards. The domino cards is the cards with pictures on the left side of the card stating the numbers of objects, and the figures on the right side of the cards. Children is asked to set the cards so the right side of the card corresponding the left side of other cards, so the number of objects is appropriate to the figure.
Figure 1. Example of Domino Game
Therefore, there is a development of children’s ability on the concepts of numbers and figures. Besides, through the contest activity, there is a development on children’s attitude of sportsmanship.
Based on the data analysis, the conclusions are:
- Developing children’s mathematics ability in PAUD Nurul Hidayah Aceh Besar can be done with methods of story-telling, task-giving, demonstrations, and contests.
- Through storytelling method, demonstrations, task-giving, and contests, occurs natural, relax, and fun learning process.
- Besides, on children occur a development of sportsmanship, creativity, and imagination.
Alhamdulillahirabbil ‘alamiin, this research has been be done. Acknowledgments from us to Head of Institute of PAUD Nurul Hidayah Aceh Besar who had given facility to us on the implementation of this research, also to the teachers on Institute of PAUD Nurul Hidayah Aceh Besar that has felt disposed to be the observers and discussion team since the reflection steps until we can get conclusion if this research.
Ahmad, Anizar., Yuhasriati., Sitti Nurchasanah. (2016). Introducing Numbers to Early Childhood Children by Using Number Cards in PAUD Negeri 2 Banda Aceh. Proceedings of UNNES International Conference 2016, 13–14 Mei (pp. 490-498), Semarang, Indonesia.
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